According to Wikipedia: 

In the mathematical field of differential topology, the Hopf fibration (also known as the Hopf bundleor Hopf map) describes a 3-sphere (a hypersphere in four-dimensional space) in terms of circles and an ordinary sphere. Discovered by Heinz Hopf in 1931, it is an influential early example of a fiber bundle. Technically, Hopf found a many-to-one continuous function (or “map”) from the 3-sphere onto the 2-sphere such that each distinct point of the 2-sphere comes from a distinct circle of the 3-sphere (Hopf 1931). Thus the 3-sphere is composed of fibers, where each fiber is a circle—one for each point of the 2-sphere.


To visualize it, please refer to this ShaderToy demo: