Display of Surfaces from Volume Data is written by Marc Levoy and is cited by over 3,000 times.

The full version of this paper can be retrieved here.


The application of volume rendering techniques to the display of surfaces from sampled scalar functions of three spatial dimensions is explored. Fitting of geometric primitives to the sampled data is not required. Images are formed by directly shading each sample and projecting it onto the picture plane. Surface shading calculations are performed at every voxel with local gradient vectors serving as surface normals. In a separate step, surface classification operators are applied to obtain a partial opacity for every voxel. Operators that detect isovalue contour surfaces and region boundary surfaces are presented. Independence of shading and classification calculations insures an undistorted visualization of 3-D shape. Non-binary classification operators insure that small or poorly defined features are not lost. The resulting colors and opacities are composited from back to front along viewing rays to form an image. The technique is simple and fast, yet displays surfaces exhibiting smooth silhouettes and few other aliasing artifacts. The use of selective blurring and super-sampling to further improve image quality is also described. Examples from two applications are given: molecular graphics and medical imaging.

Since this paper is too old, the scanned figures can not clearly express the volume rendering pipeline so I remade figures for this article:




Some great summaries from Wikipedia:

Volume rendering

In scientific visualization and computer graphics, volume rendering is a set of techniques used to display a 2D projection of a 3D discretely sampled data set, typically a 3D scalar field.

A typical 3D data set is a group of 2D slice images acquired by a CT, MRI, or MicroCT scanner. Usually these are acquired in a regular pattern (e.g., one slice every millimeter) and usually have a regular number of image pixels in a regular pattern. This is an example of a regular volumetric grid, with each volume element, or voxel represented by a single value that is obtained by sampling the immediate area surrounding the voxel.

To render a 2D projection of the 3D data set, one first needs to define a camera in space relative to the volume. Also, one needs to define the opacity and color of every voxel. This is usually defined using an RGBA (for red, green, blue, alpha) transfer function that defines the RGBA value for every possible voxel value.

For example, a volume may be viewed by extracting isosurfaces (surfaces of equal values) from the volume and rendering them as polygonal meshes or by rendering the volume directly as a block of data. The marching cubes algorithm is a common technique for extracting an isosurface from volume data. Direct volume rendering is a computationally intensive task that may be performed in several ways.

Scalar Field

In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space. The scalar may either be a mathematical number or a physical quantity. Scalar fields are required to be coordinate-independent, meaning that any two observers using the same units will agree on the value of the scalar field at the same point in space (or spacetime). Examples used in physics include the temperature distribution throughout space, the pressure distribution in a fluid, and spin-zero quantum fields, such as the Higgs field. These fields are the subject of scalar field theory.